Value Drawing - The Key to Realism
Value drawing can be used to create an image that feels so real and spacious that it seems like you could reach right into it!
It helps us create believable space, mood, atmosphere and various "special effects" in our pictures.
It is an incredibly versatile tool when understood and used correctly!
So, what is value drawing?
"Value" simply means how light or dark something is.
A drawing is said to be a value drawing when it is in black and white, when it has no color.
Black, white, and the many shades of gray in between the two are called values (and sometimes tones).
We See by Means of Values
Value isn't just important to drawing: it is what allows us to see form!
Take a look around. Are you sitting at a table? How can you tell that it is three-dimensional? The side plane and top plane of the table are most likely two different values.
We see form through differences in value (or differences in lightness and darkness).
When an object turns away from light, less light can reach it, making the object look darker. These differences in value make objects look three-dimensional.
(Learn about value, light and form by clicking here!)
This is why...
Value is one of the most important elements of realistic (or representational) drawing. We can use pencil and paper to mimic the way that values appear in life in order to create believable, illusionistic drawings.
The Importance of Value Relationships
Why is value drawing the key to realism?
Well, we know that values create the illusion of form and three-dimensionality. (Left image - detail of Le Pater
But more specifically, it is the relationships between the values of an object that make it look convincingly realistic.
To draw a believable object, the relationships between the values in our drawing must mimic the value relationships that occur in life.
by Alphonse Mucha)
For example, lets look at a photograph of a sphere (Fig 1).
What happens if I change the value of only one element in the image (therefore changing the value relationships in the scene)?
In Fig 2 I have drastically lightened the area on the sphere that is in shadow without changing any other values in the image.
The result is that it looks unnatural and defies logical sense.
It looks like there is a very strong reflected light illuminating the sphere's lower half, but where could it come from if the surface on which the sphere sits is unaffected?
Additionally, lightening only the shadows caused the sphere to lose much of its three dimensionality.
If you were to make this same mistake in a drawing, it would have the same effect: your drawing would not look realistic because its value relationships would not mimic the ones occurring in life.
If you dont accurately represent the relationships between the
values of an object, you will not create a convincing drawing.
In this lies the importance of learning about and becoming comfortable with value drawing.
Value and Illusion
Study of a Girl by Marina Fridman
When we draw, we attempt to create an illusion of the values found in nature.
We cannot truly recreate the exact values found in nature for several reasons:
1. There are an infinite number of values in nature. Our human vision is relatively poor, which makes it impossible for us to even see this full value range!
2. The drawing tools available to us have limited capabilities, restricting the value range that we can create using pencil and paper.
However, this does not hinder our ability to create realistic illusions of form and perspective, because we dont need an infinite range of values to create convincing drawings!
You can depict what you see most effectively
by simplifying your observations.
Simplifying values produces a much more cohesive, believable drawing than recording every value and minute detail that you see.
Artists realized this hundreds of years ago and created a system of simplifying and organizing values called...
The Value Scale
Artists use a system of nine values ranging from white to black, called a value scale.
The scale consists of four light values (the lights), a middle value, and four dark values (the darks).
Learn how to draw a value scale here.